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A Brief Guide to Robots.txt and Five Mistakes to Avoid

Irish Wonder

by Irish Wonder on 5th September 2012

Koozai RobotsIrish Wonder explains the origins of the Robots.txt file, why it’s one of the most important SEO documents you’ll ever write, and five mistakes that can damage your site.

What Is a Robots.txt File?

An important, but sometimes overlooked element of onsite optimisation is the robots.txt file. This file alone, usually weighing not more than a few bytes, can be responsible for making or breaking your site’s relationship with the search engines.

Robots.txt is often found in your site’s root directory and exists to regulate the bots that crawl your site. This is where you can grant or deny permission to all or some specific search engine robots to access certain pages or your site as a whole. The standard for this file was developed in 1994 and is known as the Robots Exclusion Standard or Robots Exclusion Protocol. Detailed info about the robots.txt protocol can be found at robotstxt.org.

Standard Rules

The “standards” of the Robots Exclusion Standard are pretty loose as there is no official ruling body of this protocol. However, the most widely used robots elements are:

- User-agent (referring to the specific bots the rules apply to)
- Disallow (referring to the site areas the bot specified by the user-agent is not supposed to crawl – sometimes “Allow” is used instead of it or in addition to it, with the opposite meaning)

Often the robots.txt file also mentions the location of the sitemap.

Most existing robots (including those belonging to the main search engines) “understand” the above elements, however not all of them respect them and abide by these rules. Sometimes, certain caveats apply, such as this one mentioned by Google here:

While Google won’t crawl or index the content of pages blocked by robots.txt, we may still index the URLs if we find them on other pages on the web. As a result, the URL of the page and, potentially, other publicly available information such as anchor text in links to the site, or the title from the Open Directory Project (www.dmoz.org), can appear in Google search results.

Interestingly, today Google is showing a new message:

“A description for this result is not available because of this site’s robots.txtlearn more. “

Disallowed text

Which further indicates that Google can still index other pages even if they are blocked in a Robots.txt file.

File Structure

The typical structure of a robots.txt file is something like:
User-agent: *
Sitemap: http://www.yoursite.com/sitemap.xml

The above example means that any bot can access anything on the site and the sitemap is located at http://www.yoursite.com/sitemap.xml. The wildcard (*) means that the rule applies to all robots.

Access Rules

To set access rules for a specific robot, e.g. Googlebot, the user-agent needs to be defined accordingly:

User-agent: Googlebot

In the above example, Googlebot is denied access to the /images/ folder of a site. Additionally, a specific rule can be set to explicitly disallow access to all files within a folder:


The wildcard in this case refers to all files within the folder. But robots.txt can be even more flexible and define access rules for a specific page:


- or a certain filetype:


Similarly, if a site uses parameters in URLs and they result in pages with duplicate content you can opt out of indexing them by using a corresponding rule, something like:

Disallow: /*?*

(meaning “do not crawl any URLs with ? in them”, which is often the way parameters are included in URLs).

That’s quite an extensive set of commands with a lot of different options. No wonder, then, that often site owners and webmasters cannot get it all right, and make all kinds of (sometimes dangerous or costly) mistakes.

Here are some typical robots.txt mistakes:

1.     No robots.txt file at all

Having no robots.txt file for your site means it is completely open for any spider to crawl. If you have a simple 5-page static site with nothing to hide this may not be an issue at all, but since it’s 2012, your site is most likely running on some sort of a CMS. Unless it’s an absolutely perfect CMS (and I’m yet to see one), chances are  there are indexable instances of duplicate content because of the same articles being accessible via different URLs, as well as backend bits and pieces not intended for your site visitors to see.

2.     Empty robots.txt

This is just as bad as not having the robots.txt file at all. Besides the unpleasant effects mentioned above, depending on the CMS used on the site, both cases also bear a risk of URLs like this one getting indexed:


This can expose your site to potentially being indexed in the context of a bad neighborhood (the actual domain name has of course been replaced but the domain where I have noticed this specific type of URLs being indexable had an empty robots.txt file)

3.     Default robots.txt allowing to access everything

I am talking about the robots.txt file like this:

User-agent: *

Or like this:

User-agent: *

Just like in the previous two cases, you are leaving your site completely unprotected and there is little point in having a robots.txt file like this at all, unless, again, you are running a static 5-page site á la 1998 and there is nothing to hide on your server.

4.     Your robots.txt contradicts your XML sitemap

Misleading the search engines is never a good idea. If your sitemap.xml file contains URLs explicitly blocked by your robots.txt, you are contradicting yourself.  This can often happen if your robots.txt and /or sitemap.xml files are generated by different automated tools and not checked manually afterwards.

Luckily, this kind of error is relatively easy to spot using Google Webmaster Tools. If you have added your site to Google Webmaster Tools, verified it and submitted an XML sitemap for it, you can see a report on crawling the URLs submitted via the sitemap in Optimization -> Sitemaps section of GWT. Depending on how many sitemaps your site has, it can look like this:

Sitemaps section

From there, you can dig deeper into the specific sitemap with issues detected and see the examples of blocked URLs:

sitemap errors

An additional word of praise for Google Webmaster Tools: there is a robots.txt testing tool inside it and this little handy tool can make webmasters’ lives so much easier. Its location is not so obvious but you can find it here:

Blocked URL's

The beauty of this tool is in that before you apply any changes to your live robots.txt file on the server, you can test them here and see if what you want blocked will end up getting blocked and any pages you want have indexed aren’t added by accident:

Blocked URLs

To see how the Googlebot will treat specific URLs after applying the changes, you need to enter a sample URL you want to test and press the button:

File allowed

This example shows a URL that will stay accessible to the Googlebot. If a URL is going to be blocked, you will see the following message:

File disallowed

To me this looks like a perfect tool for learning to build proper robots.txt files.

5.     Using robots.txt to block access to sensitive areas of your site

If you have any areas on your site that should not be accessible, password protect them. Do not, I repeat, DO NOT ever use robots.txt for blocking access to them. There are a number of reasons why this should never be done:

-          robots.txt is a recommendation, not a mandatory set of rules;

-          rogue bots not respecting the robots protocol and humans can still access the disallowed areas;

-          robots.txt itself is a publicly accessible file and everybody can see if you are trying to hide something if you place it under a disallow rule in robots.txt;

-          if something needs to stay completely private do not put it online, period.

One of the favorite entertainments of the SEO community is checking Google’s robots.txt to see what new secret projects they are working on – and many times in the past people have spotted such projects that have not been released to the public via robots.txt.

Quirky Uses of Robots.txt and Fun Facts

Robots.txt is a serious element of any onsite optimization project but in the meantime, lots of fun can be had with it too:

-          Some people declare their love of robots via it (Vizify.com) or send you off to watch a video of a dancing robot (SEOMoz);

-          Google has used its robots.txt over Halloween to protect itself from zombies;

-          Brett Tabke has used WebmasterWorld’s robots.txt file to… run a blog in it!

-          Daily Mail used their robots.txt to hire an SEO a while ago (via Malcolm Coles);

-          Whyte & Mackay once ran a hidden competition in their robots.txt and those who spotted it could win some whisky (Via Malcolm Coles, who definitely likes discovering such things);

-          Digg has its robots.txt file cloaked – when you access it as a human visitor all you see is this:

Digg error

This post by Sebastian X has an instruction on how to cloak your robots.txt file if you’re feeling particularly paranoid – just remember that if somebody really wants to see it they can always spoof their user agent or look at Google’s cache of the file);

-          Youtube has a reference to the Terminator plot in their robots.txt:

YouTube robots

-          Among the search engines, Yahoo has the shortest robots.txt file (4 lines only), while Google’s robots.txt is massive – 291 lines.

The views expressed in this post are those of the author so may not represent those of the Koozai team

Irish Wonder

Irish Wonder

IrishWonder has been practicing SEO since 2000, dealing with both whitehat and blackhat techniques. IrishWonder believes in using the right tools for the job rather than sticking to whatever ideology. Since 2005, IrishWonder has been a moderator at Syndk8 Black Hat SEO forums, and also offers SEO consulting services at irishwonder.com.

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  • Mike Essex

    Mike Essex 5th September 2012

    Thanks for a great write-up and it’s always nice to get a refresher on the basics. It’s crazy how many big sites forget about Robots.txt files as they chase other SEO aspects. It’s really essential for a day one site launch.

    I hate how Google still indexing pages even if they are blocked. Do you feel “nofollow / noindex” and canonical tags will be enough if you want a page to not be indexed, or are even they ignored?

    Reply to this comment

    • IrishWonder 5th September 2012

      Google puts that disclaimer up for a reason – there isn’t much they can really do about NOT indexing blocked pages, be it via robots.txt or a meta robots tag, until they access the actual page. So if they just spider links from elsewhere on the web, they either need to first visit the pages linked to, discover they are blocked and not include them in the index – or they just include them but since they are blocked they cannot retrieve anything from those pages. Previously, they used to display just the URL (like in the supplementary index way back) – now they add a note that I caught in the first screenshot.

      Reply to this comment

  • Gareth 5th September 2012

    Also read somewhere about building links to a robot.txt blocked page makes the spiders hungry for more and keeps them coming back. Is that still true you think?

    Reply to this comment

    • IrishWonder 5th September 2012

      Gareth – can neither confirm nor deny that, it sounds a bit along the lines of “SEO Voodoo” ;-) but in my experience, having a link to the robots.txt file itself make it indexed and even gets it to appear as one of the results for a site: search in G

      Reply to this comment

  • Earl Grey 5th September 2012

    funnily enough i have been working a lot with robots.txt recently.
    a very powerful but ignored tool

    Reply to this comment

  • CSRWEB 5th September 2012

    It’s amazing how simple the robots.txt file is but it can make such a large difference. I also really like the Google Webmaster tools robots testing tool, useful for beginners and experts alike.

    Reply to this comment

  • DaveN 5th September 2012

    never stops amazing me how many times a developer will roll back the robots.txt file and block everything :)

    Reply to this comment

  • g1smd 5th September 2012

    Trailing * wildcard is always redundant.

    Disallow: /this*

    is exactly the same as

    Disallow: /this

    URL patterns are “matched from the left”.

    Use the * wildcard only in the middle of a pattern:

    Disallow: /*this

    Be aware too, that when you have a section of the robots.txt file beginning:

    User-agent: Googlebot

    that Google will read ONLY this section of the file.

    This means that any rules in the User-agent: * section of the robots.txt file that you want to also apply to Google must be duplicated into the section of the file that Google will read.

    Reply to this comment

    • IrishWonder 5th September 2012

      Great info Ian, thanks for adding it here! You are THE expert so it’s very beneficial to have your input on the topic.

      One concern that I have from my experience, however: I have seen cases where


      still lets domain.com/something/whatever.htm slip into the index, while


      in addition to the non-wildcard line seems to fix the issue. What’s going on here?

      Reply to this comment

  • g1smd 5th September 2012

    A rule such as…

    Disallow: /this

    should disallow…






    and anything else that begins


    I’ve not seen any counter examples. The few times I thought there was a problem, it turned out the disallow rule was not in the right ruleset to be “seen” by the bot in question.

    Reply to this comment

  • Anna Lewis

    Anna Lewis 5th September 2012

    Great post, thanks Irish Wonder!

    I love all the techy solutions, but if you’re talking about robots.txt you have to see an awesome example of one full of ascii art by Rishi Lakhani : http://explicitly.me/robots.txt

    It add a whole other dimension to what you could use your robots.txt file for!

    Reply to this comment

  • Ahmed 4th February 2013

    if i want to add multiple sitemaps then what to do?

    Reply to this comment

  • Kingsley Agu 2nd March 2013

    wooow.. This tips will help me know how to include the robot.txt file better in my site. I’ll try it out now.
    Thanks for the write up.

    Reply to this comment

  • Laust 29th August 2013

    my robots.txt is being indexed and is in the SERP – what to do?

    Reply to this comment

  • Shaan @ PNR Status 18th December 2013

    To prevent the indexing of robots.txt in search engine add this code in your .htaccess file.

    Header set X-Robots-Tag “noindex”

    Reply to this comment

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